The Soul among all the problems that philosophy deals with is that of our essence and its immortality, which has never ceased to worry humanity. Everywhere and in all times, the systems and doctrines on this subject have come and gone, with variety and contradiction, and the word Anima has served to designate the most varied concepts of existence and the most varied nuances of being. Of all these doctrines, sometimes antagonistic, undoubtedly the oldest is that of Kabbalah. Passed down orally it goes back to the origin of the human species, and therefore perhaps, in part, it is also the product of that not yet obscured intelligence, of that penetrating spirit towards the truth, which according to ancient Tradition man possessed in his primordial state .
Although nature is a complex whole, according to Kabbalah, we find there however three apparently distinct aspects: the body, the soul and the spirit [mass, energy and the principial noumenon]. They differ from each other as the concrete, the particular and the universal, so that one is the reflection of the other and each one, even in himself, offers this triple distinction.
The first aspect, the body, with its threefold modality, the second, the soul, seat of the will-intellect, which properly constitutes the human personality, with its triple expression, the third, the spirit, with its three powers . These three aspects of man are not completely distinct and separate, but they are one inside the other like the colors of the spectrum, which, although they follow one another, cannot be completely distinguished because they are fused into one another.
Starting from the body, and through the soul going up to the highest degree of the spirit, all the gradations are found, as when one passes from the shadow to the light through the penumbra. Inversely, from the highest parts of the spirit to the gross physical ones, all the shades of radiation are covered, just as from light we pass to darkness through twilight.
Now according to Kabbalah, man instead of living in Divinity and constantly receiving from her the influence he needs, has plunged ever more into the love of himself and into the world of error, from the moment of his fall or immediately after, so as to leave its eternal center for the periphery. This descent and the ever greater distancing from the Divinity have had as a consequence a decay of the powers in the human nature, and therefore in the whole humanity.
The divine spark has darkened more and more in man, and has lost the intimate union with God. Because of this general decay and the partial relaxation of the links between the elements, the lower part which in man was originally a luminous body , it has become our material body; therefore man has been subjected to dissolution in the three main parts of his constitution.